", This page was last edited on 21 March 2021, at 00:30. {code: 'ad_topslot_b', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_topslot', adUnitPath: '/23202586/cdo_topslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[728, 90]] } }, name: "identityLink", The defeat of the XV Corps to its right forced Foch into retreat. 'buckets': [{ [56], This article is about the French military commander. filterSettings: { iasLog("exclusion label : resp"); { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_topslot_728x90' }}, { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '387233' }}, bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776140', position: 'atf' }}, iasLog("criterion : cdo_dc = english"); [3] In November 1918, Marshal Foch accepted the German cessation of hostilities and was present at the Armistice of 11 November 1918. He played a decisive role in halting a renewed German advance on Paris in the Second Battle of the Marne, after which he was promoted to Marshal of France. La cérémonie de capitulation a lieu le 2 septembre à bord du cuirassé de la marine américaine USS Missouri (BB-63), cérémonie au cours de laquelle des représentants du gouvernement japonais signent les actes de capitulation du Japon, mettant ainsi fin aux hostilités. Votre commentaire n'a pas pu être envoyé dû à un problème. At the outbreak of war in August 1914, Foch's XX Corps participated in the brief invasion of Germany before retreating in the face of a German counter-attack and successfully blocking the Germans short of Nancy. dfpSlots['topslot_a'] = googletag.defineSlot('/23202586/cdo_topslot', [], 'ad_topslot_a').defineSizeMapping(mapping_topslot_a).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'top').setTargeting('hp', 'center').addService(googletag.pubads()); [10] In 1913 he took command of XX Corps at Nancy, and he had held this appointment for exactly one year when he led XX Corps into battle in August 1914. }); One of the main speakers was Vice President Calvin Coolidge of the United States. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_topslot' }}]}]; Thanks for your vote! Foch's only rigidity was always taking his meals at noon and at 7:30; otherwise, he would work all sorts of irregular hours from dawn until well into the night.[9]. [28], In January 1918, in accordance with Lloyd George's wishes, an executive board was set up to control the planned Allied General Reserve, with Clemenceau's agreement being obtained by having Foch on the board rather than Maxime Weygand. googletag.pubads().disableInitialLoad(); { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_topslot' }}]}, [30] At the Doullens Conference (26 March) and at Beauvais (3 April), Foch was given the job of coordinating the activities of the Allied armies,[31][32] forming a common reserve and using these divisions to guard the junction of the French and British armies and to plug the potentially fatal gap that would have followed a German breakthrough in the British Fifth Army sector. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162050', zoneId: '776358', position: 'atf' }}, L’armistice de 1918, signé le 11 novembre 1918 à 5 h 15 [2], [3], met provisoirement fin aux combats de la Première Guerre mondiale (1914-1918), reconnaissant de facto la victoire des Alliés et la défaite de l'Allemagne, mais il ne s'agit pas d'une capitulation au sens propre, cet armistice étant prévu pour durer 36 jours, puis il a ensuite été renouvelé [4]. He successfully coordinated the French, British and American efforts into a coherent whole, deftly handling his strategic reserves. The Germans dug in before eventually retreating. On the day of the armistice, 11 November 1918, he was elected to the Académie des Sciences. L'armistice de 1918 est accueilli dans l'allégresse et l'anxiété du retour des blessés. }); } During his time as an instructor, Foch created renewed interest in French military history, inspired confidence in a new class of French officers, and brought about "the intellectual and moral regeneration of the French Army". Foch's counterattack was an implementation of the theories he had developed during his staff college days and succeeded in stopping the German advance. Pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, après l' armistice du 22 juin 1940 et l'occupation partielle de la France par les Allemands, l'administration de l'île est sous le contrôle du régime de Vichy. { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_topslot' }}, iasLog("criterion : sfr = cdo_pronunciation"); } googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_l", "fr"); {code: 'ad_rightslot', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_rightslot', adUnitPath: '/23202586/cdo_rightslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250]] } }, This statue was the one item left undisturbed by the Germans following their defeat of France in June 1940. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654157' }}, Le 20e siècle a été le témoin de plusieurs génocides en dehors de l’Holocauste et … Ordered west to defend Paris, Foch's prestige soared as a result of the victory at the Marne, for which he was widely credited as a chief protagonist while commanding the French Ninth Army. { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_SR' }}, However, historians took a less sanguine view of Foch's talents as commander, particularly as the idea took root that his military doctrines had set the stage for the futile and costly offensives of 1914 in which French armies suffered devastating losses. { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '387233' }}, At a later conference he was given the title Supreme Commander of the Allied Armies with the title of Généralissime ("Supreme General"). if(pl_p) As a colonel he became regimental commander of the 35th Artillery Regiment (35e R.A) at Vannes. In 1940, after the defeat of France by Germany early in World War II, when France signed an armistice with Germany, Adolf Hitler, in a calculated gesture of disdain to the French delegates, left the carriage, as Foch had done in 1918. Foch (along with Wilson and Italian general Cadorna) were appointed military representatives, to whom the general staffs of each country were to submit their plans. iasLog("criterion : cdo_tc = resp"); The following month Pétain was appointed C-in-C in place of Nivelle, and Foch was recalled and promoted to chief of the general staff. },{ priceGranularity: customGranularity, Bonjour et bienvenue sur podcastfrancaisfacile.com. Foch received further reinforcements from the Fifth Army and, following another attack on his forces, counter-attacked again on the Marne. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654157' }}, Prononciation de wagon avec 2 prononciations audio. The Armistice site was restored by German prisoner-of-war labour following the Second World War, with its memorials and monuments either restored or reassembled. Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary & Thesaurus. This is where French garrison soldiers were housed while Berlin was divided. 5 ratings. {code: 'ad_topslot_a', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_topslot', adUnitPath: '/23202586/cdo_topslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 50], [320, 50], [320, 100]] } }, In 1871, he entered the École Polytechnique, choosing the school of artillery. La France est tenue par des obligations nombreuses vis-à-vis du vainqueur. 'increment': 0.05, Voici une liste de phrases. Also present that day were Lieutenant General Baron Jacques of Belgium, Admiral David Beatty of Great Britain, General Armando Diaz of Italy and General John J. Pershing of the United States. [9] Foch was a quiet man, known for saying little and when he did speak, it was a volley of words accompanied by much gesturing of his hands that required some knowledge of him to understand properly. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654156' }}, Tissier à Rome (Rome, 19 janvier 1917)" [News from Rome: S. G. Monsignor Tissier in Rome]. googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_pc", "pronunciation"); window.ga=window.ga||function(){(ga.q=ga.q||[]).push(arguments)};ga.l=+new Date; Après un génocide, le droit est l'un des moyens d'obtenir justice.Au lendemain de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, des tribunaux internationaux et nationaux procédèrent au jugement des criminels de guerre. About Face (album) - About Face is the second solo studio album by the English … { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971080', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195467', size: [320, 100] }}, var mapping_topslot_a = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([746, 0], []).addSize([0, 550], [[300, 250]]).addSize([0, 0], [[300, 50], [320, 50], [320, 100]]).build(); "sign-in": "https://dictionary.cambridge.org/fr/auth/signin?rid=READER_ID", type: "html5", { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195467', size: [300, 50] }}, "Rise and Fall of a Coalition: The Supreme War Council and Marshal Foch, 1917–1919" (US Army School for Advanced Military Studies Fort Leavenworth United States, 2017), Greenhalgh, Elizabeth. 'min': 8.50, expires: 365 'increment': 0.5, Ten days later, he was unanimously elected to the Académie française. The situation was worsened by Clemenceau's and Pétain's dislike of Foch. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776160', position: 'atf' }}, It started operation from its base in Paris at the end of June. He is the only Frenchman ever to be made an honorary field-marshal by the British. ga('require', 'displayfeatures'); All it has to do is to decide what they shall be.[40]. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776156', position: 'atf' }}, On the outbreak of World War I, Foch was in command of XX Corps, part of the Second Army of General de Castelnau. { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_topslot' }}, Situation excellent. googletag.pubads().addEventListener('slotRenderEnded', function(event) { if (!event.isEmpty && event.slot.renderCallback) { event.slot.renderCallback(event); } }); 'min': 0, // FIXME: (temporary) - send ad requests only if PlusPopup is not shown { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195466', size: [728, 90] }}, } Field Marshal Sir John French, C-in-C of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) had described Foch in August 1914 to J. E. B. Seely, a liaison officer, as "the sort of man with whom I know I can get on" and later in February 1915 described him to Lord Selbourne as "the best general in the world". "authorizationTimeout": 10000 { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971080', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, Henceforward Germany ought to be deprived of all entrance and assembling ground, that is, of all territorial sovereignty on the left bank of the river, that is, of all facilities for invading quickly, as in 1914, Belgium, Luxembourg, for reaching the coast of the North Sea and threatening the United Kingdom, for outflanking the natural defences of France, the Rhine, Meuse, conquering the Northern Provinces and entering the Parisian area.[40]. Comment dire armistice en anglais, grâce aux prononciations audio - Cambridge University Press C'est l'amorce de la « Commune ». Toutes nos félicitations! 'cap': true During the tour, he received numerous honorary degrees from American Universities.[44]. [53] A statue of Foch stands on the Bapaume-Peronne road, near the village of Bouchavesnes, at the point where Messimy's chasseurs broke through on 12 September 1916. In 1876, he attended the cavalry school of Saumur to train as a mounted artillery officer. Pronunciation of Clemenceau with 2 audio pronunciations. { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971081', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, pbjsCfg = { The Allied armies under Foch's command ultimately held the advance of the German forces. #HunterxHunter #HxH #MangaYo les nakamas ! This makes it impossible for the yet unstable German Government to reject any demand on our part if it is clearly formulated. { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_Billboard' }}, (Prononciations anglaises de armistice depuis le Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary & Thesaurus et le Cambridge Academic Content Dictionary, both sources © Cambridge University Press), ‘Every cloud has a silver lining.’ (Idioms with weather words, Part 2), Explications claires de l'anglais naturel écrit et parlé. { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971080', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, IPA Phonétique et orthographe. In January 1919, at the Paris Peace Conference Foch presented a memorandum to the Allied plenipotentiaries in which he stated: Henceforward the Rhine ought to be the Western military frontier of the German countries. var pbTabletSlots = [ After the reading of the preamble of the November 1918 armistice, Foch left the carriage, in a move that was perceived as humiliating by the defeated Germans. const customGranularity = { }; pbjs.que.push(function() { googletag.pubads().setTargeting("sfr", "cdo_pronunciation"); It is an armistice for twenty years." }); The position of Marshal Foch Professor of French Literature at the University of Oxford was founded in 1918 shortly after the end of the First World War. The people of Châlons greeted as a hero the man widely believed to have been instrumental in stopping the retreat and stabilising the Allied position. storage: { iasLog("criterion : cdo_l = fr"); },{ Prononciation de armistice. }, var mapping_topslot_b = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([746, 0], [[728, 90]]).addSize([0, 0], []).build(); [20], On 2 December 1914, King George V appointed him an Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath.[21]. On 6 August 1918, Foch was made a Marshal of France. googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_dc", "english"); Their doctrines had been challenged, not only by the German school, but also since about 1911 by a new French school inspired by General Loiseau de Grandmaison, which criticised them as lacking in vigour and offensive spirit and contributing to needless dispersion of force. Enfin, cela montre comment ces phénomènes peuvent mener à un génocide. 'increment': 0.01, googletag.pubads().set("page_url", "https://dictionary.cambridge.org/pronunciation/english/armistice"); { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_Billboard' }}, [26]) Clemenceau was eventually persuaded to appoint Foch's protégé Weygand instead, although many already suspected that Foch would eventually become the Allied Generalissimo. IPA : vaɡɔ̃, waɡɔ̃. He was promoted Lieutenant-Colonel in 1898, and colonel in 1903. var pbMobileLrSlots = [ { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_topslot' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195464', size: [160, 600] }}, Foch was later acclaimed as "the most original military thinker of his generation". params: { In March 1918 Colonel Charles G. Dawes, the general purchasing agent for the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) recommended to his commanding general John J. Pershing that a new intergovernmental agency was necessary to coordinate transportation and storage of military supplies in France. A city quarter in the former French sector of Berlin is called Cité Foch in his honor. name: "pubCommonId", They tried again at the end of the month during the First Battle of Ypres, this time suffering terrible casualties. googletag.pubads().setTargeting('cdo_alc_pr', pl_p.split(",")); document.head.appendChild(btScript); When the Franco-Prussian War broke out in 1870, the 19-year-old Foch enlisted in the French 4th Infantry Regiment, which did not take part in combat. The Entente, in its present favourable military situation, can obtain acceptance of any peace conditions it may put forward provided that they are presented without much delay. An aggressive, even reckless commander at the First Marne, Flanders and Artois campaigns of 1914–1916, Foch became the Allied Commander-in-Chief in late March 1918 in the face of the all-out German spring offensive, which pushed the Allies back using fresh soldiers and new tactics that trenches could not contain. 'pa pdd chac-sb tc-bd bw hbr-20 hbss lpt-25' : 'hdn'">, Créez gratuitement des listes de mots et des jeux. Faites-nous part de vos remarques sur cette phrase d'exemple : 0 && stateHdr.searchDesk ? Traduction anglaise de truce addPrebidAdUnits(pbAdUnits); ga('send', 'pageview'); Ajoutez ${headword} à une de vos listes ci-dessous, ou créez une nouvelle liste. On 12 September, Foch regained the Marne at Châlons and liberated the city. googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_ei", "armistice"); { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_HDX' }}, var pbDesktopSlots = [ name: "pbjs-unifiedid", In 1907 Foch was promoted to Général de Brigade, and in the same year, he assumed command of the French War College. General Debeney spoke at the statue's unveiling in 1926, praising Foch's operational concepts of 1918. Le Gouvernement peut passer un texte en force soit par un vote bloqué (article 44 alinéa 3 de la Constitution), soit par un engagement de sa responsabilité (article 49 alinéa 3 de la Constitution). Difficult. dfpSlots['leftslot'] = googletag.defineSlot('/23202586/cdo_leftslot', [[120, 600], [160, 600]], 'ad_leftslot').defineSizeMapping(mapping_leftslot).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'top').setTargeting('hp', 'left').addService(googletag.pubads()); params: { { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195464', size: [120, 600] }}, bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776156', position: 'atf' }}, pbjs.que = pbjs.que || []; In the euphoria of victory Foch was regularly compared to Napoleon and Julius Caesar. {code: 'ad_topslot_b', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_topslot', adUnitPath: '/23202586/cdo_topslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[728, 90]] } }, On 14 August the Corps advanced towards the Sarrebourg–Morhange line, taking heavy casualties in the Battle of the Frontiers. Collections of his lectures, which reintroduced the concept of the offensive to French military theory, were published in the volumes "Des Principes de la Guerre" ("On the Principles of War") in 1903, and "De la Conduite de la Guerre" ("On the Conduct of War") in 1904. [54] Foch also has a grape cultivar named after him. {code: 'ad_leftslot', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_leftslot', adUnitPath: '/23202586/cdo_leftslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[120, 600], [160, 600], [300, 600]] } }, [23] The Anglo-French leadership agreed in early September to send 100 heavy guns to Italy, 50 of them from the French army on the left of Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig, C-in-C of the BEF, rather than the 300 which Lloyd George wanted. } Foch had again succeeded in coordinating a defense and winning against the odds. }, Les délégations françaises et nazis, signent l'armistice, le 22 juin 1940. • Crédits : Hulton Archive Board decisions had to be unanimous, and once made were binding on all of the armies. { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_SR' }}, [17] Accordingly, on 4 October 1914, Ferdinand was made the Assistant Commander-in-Chief of the Northern Zone under Joseph Joffre. [8] His brother, Germain Foch, became a Jesuit priest, which may have hindered Foch's rise in the French Army since the Republican government of France was anti-clerical.[4]. L’armistice au demeurant n’est pas la paix. "authorizationFallbackResponse": { Comment dire prison Anglais? Prononciation de Clemenceau à 2 prononciations audio, 5 synonymes, 1 sens, 5 traductions, 10 les phrases et de plus pour Clemenceau. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_topslot' }}]}]; Maîtres malgré eux de la capitale, les révolutionnaires et militants socialistes et ouvriers vont offrir à la bourgeoisie républicaine l'occasion de se débarrasser une fois pour toutes de la « question sociale ». { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_leftslot_160x600' }}, It involved coordinating the entirely different supply systems for the American, British, and French armies, as well as the Italian and Belgian armies. { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_leftslot' }}, var pbMobileHrSlots = [ storage: { userIds: [{ { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195466', size: [728, 90] }}, { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_topslot' }}, bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776160', position: 'atf' }}, " Frank H. Simonds, New York Times, 10 November 1921 "Foch Sees Ingots Rolled into Plates.". Élevé à la dignité de maréchal de France en 1918, il est frappé d'indignité nationale et … An early district of Gdynia, Poland was also named "Foch" after the Marshal but was renamed by the communist government after the Second World War. dfpSlots['rightslot'] = googletag.defineSlot('/23202586/cdo_rightslot', [[300, 250]], 'ad_rightslot').defineSizeMapping(mapping_rightslot).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'mid').setTargeting('hp', 'right').addService(googletag.pubads()); {code: 'ad_leftslot', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_leftslot', adUnitPath: '/23202586/cdo_leftslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[120, 600], [160, 600]] } }, [22], Outside of the Western Front, Foch opposed British Prime Minister David Lloyd George's plans to send British and French troops to help Italy take Trieste, but was open to the suggestion of sending heavy guns. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776160', position: 'atf' }}, Est-ce que tu t'es déjà demandé comment prononcer "bonjour", "salut", "je t'aime"... correctement ? { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_rightslot' }}]}]; enableSendAllBids: false He held this position until 1911, the year in which he was appointed Général de Division. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_topslot' }}]}, Enfin, l'opposition cataphore/anaphore a fait ressortir l'asymétrie totale entre ces deux procédés. }], { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971079', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, The French Army fought under the new doctrines, but they failed in the first battles of August 1914, and it remained to be seen whether the Napoleonic doctrine would hold its own, would give way to doctrines evolved during the war, or would incorporate the new moral and technical elements into a new outward form within which the spirit of Napoleon remained unaltered. { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_rightslot_flex' }}, { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_rightslot' }}, The British General Sir Henry Rawlinson, commanding the British Fourth Army, commented after meeting Foch: "I am overjoyed at his methods and far-sighted strategy. { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_topslot' }}, bidders: '*', Le document Le maréchal Pétain prononce un discours à … By contrast, Lieutenant General William Robertson, another British officer, thought that Foch was "rather a flat-catcher,[19] a mere professor, and very talkative" (28 September 1915). ga('set', 'dimension3', "default"); 0 évaluation. At a Supreme War Council meeting in London (14–15 March), with a German offensive clearly imminent, Foch agreed under protest to shelve the Allied Reserve for the time being. He attended school in Tarbes, Rodez, Polignan and at the Jesuit Collège Saint-Michel in Saint-Étienne before attending the Jesuit Collège Saint-Clement in Metz. { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_rightslot_flex' }}, Receiving thanks from the Bishop of Châlons (Joseph-Marie Tissier), Foch piously replied, "non-nobis, Domine, non-nobis, sed nomini tuo da gloriam" ("Not unto us, o Lord, not unto us, but to Your name give glory", Psalm 115:1).[18]. Comment dire Radetzky Anglais? { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971066', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, The Rhine was for him a river of life and death. Today, Nov. 11, is Veterans Day, formerly known as "Armistice Day," in commemoration of the armistice, which, at the "eleventh hour of the eleventh day … if(!isPlusPopupShown()) On 1 November 1921 Foch was in Kansas City, Missouri, to take part in the groundbreaking ceremony for the Liberty Memorial that was being constructed there. googletag.cmd = googletag.cmd || []; Le mot de l'exemple n'est pas le même que le mot recherché. Can you pronounce this word better. Foch believed it was a diversion to draw Allied reserves away from Flanders. {code: 'ad_topslot_a', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_topslot', adUnitPath: '/23202586/cdo_topslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250]] } }, é l'opposition texte-situation et la théorie mémorielle, qui met en valeur le mode de donation du référent. 'max': 36, 'How did I win the war?' googletag.enableServices(); { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_rightslot' }}, var dfpSlots = {};